Tarantul V.Z., Rodionov A.V., Makarova I.V., Goltsov V.A., Chelysheva L.A., KhutinaevaM.A., Gaginskaya E.R., Gazaryan K.G.
Transcription of moderately repeated conservative sequences of the vertebrate genome: molecular and cytological analysis.
Tsitologiia — 1989. — V. 31, — P. 619–625.

Transcription of several families of moderately repeated sequences, conserved through the evolution of vertebrates, has been studied in different types of pigeon, chicken and mouse cells. It is shown both by hybridization with isolated RNA and by in situ hybridization that the families of repeats, dispersed in bird genomes and organized in clusters, are differentially expressed in pigeon erythroid cells with different degrees of specialization; in addition, they are transcribed in different types of chick embryo cells and on lampbrush chromosomes in chicken oocytes. Sequences homologous to these repeats were transcribed in different types of new-born mouse cells. Another family of conservative moderate repeats (family Tl) dispersed in the mouse genome was also transcribed in a large variety of tissues in both new-born mice and chick embryos. A comparison of structural and transcription features of conservative moderate repeats represented in genomes of the number of vertebrates made it possible to regard them as "housekeeping" elements. The conservation in the evolution as well as the character of transcription of similar genome elements testify to their important role in the organism functioning at different stages of development.